BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4)-directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCd). Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process with complicated roles in tumor development. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β) family of regulatory proteins, plays a crucial role in human malignancies. BMP4 treatment promoted HCC cells proliferation and induced autophagy. Mechanistic study revealed that the induction of autophagy by BMP4 was mediated through activating the JNK1/Bcl2 pathway. And the JNK1 inhibitor and knockdown of JNK1 could attenuate autophagy induced by BMP4 and eliminated BMP4-promoted HCC cells growth. BMP4 promoted HCC proliferation by autophagy activation through JNK1/Bcl-2 signaling.
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