IL12A is a subunit of a cytokine that acts on T and natural killer cells, and has a broad array of biological activities. IL12A, together with IL27B, form a disulfide-linked heterodimer: IL12A&IL27B. IL12A&IL27B is required for the T-cell-independent induction of IFN-gamma, and is important for the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. The responses of lymphocytes to this cytokine are mediated by the activator of transcription protein STAT4. Nitric oxide synthase 2A (NOS2A/NOS2) is found to be required for the signaling process of IL12A&IL27B in innate immunity.