CCN4/Wnt-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1) is a secreted, cysteine-rich, heparin-binding glycoprotein, belonging to the CCN (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) family of growth factors, and is involved in diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, migration, angiogenesis, tissue repair, and regulation of extracellular matrix. Members of the CCN family demonstrate high structural homology sharing four conserved cysteine-rich modular domains: a IGFBP (insulin-like growthfactor-binding) domain, a von Willebrand type C domain, a thrombospondin domain and a C-terminal cysteine -knot domain. WISP1 is a putative downstream effector of the Wnt/Frizzled pathway that mediates diversedevelopmental processes, was identified as an oncogene regulated by the Wnt-1-beta-catenin pathway. Thus may contributes to Wnt-1-mediated tumorigenesis and malignance. Expression of WISP1 in some cells results in transformation and tumorigenesis. WISP1 acts to block cell death at a late stage in the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway. It was reported that WISP1 interacts with sulfated glycoconjugates, decorin and biglycan in the ECM of connective tissue, and possibly prevents their inhibitory activity in tumor cell proliferation.
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