Stromal interaction molecule 1, also known as STIM1 and GOK, is a cell membrane, a single-pass type I membrane protein and a endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein. STIM1 / GOK is ubiquitously expressed in various human primary cells and tumor cell lines. It contains oneEF-hand domain and oneSAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. STIM1 / GOK plays a role in mediating Ca2+influx following depletion of intracellular Ca2+stores. It acts as Ca2+sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum via its EF-hand domain. Upon Ca2+depletion, STIM1 / GOK translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane where it activates the Ca2+release-activated Ca2+(CRAC) channel subunit, TMEM142A / ORAI1. Transfection of STIM1 / GOK into cells derived from a rhabdoid tumor and from a rhabdomyosarcoma that do not express detectable levels of STIM1 can induce cell death, suggesting a possible role in the control of rhabdomyosarcomas and rhabdoid tumors. Defects in STIM1 are the cause of immune dysfunction with T-cell inactivation due to calcium entry defect type 2 (IDTICED2) which is an immune disorder characterized by recurrent infections, impaired T-cell activation and proliferative response, decreased T-cell production of cytokines, lymphadenopathy, and normal lymphocytes counts and serum immunoglobulin levels.
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