MSH2 is a key DNA mismatch repair protein, which plays an important role in genomic stability. In addition to its DNA repair function, MSH2 serves as a sensor for DNA base analogs-provoked DNA replication errors and binds to various DNA damage-induced adducts to trigger cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Loss or depletion of MSH2 from cells renders resistance to certain DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, the level of MSH2 determines DNA damage response.MSH2 is a central component of the mismatch repair pathway that targets mismatches arising during DNA replication, homologous recombination (HR) and in response to genotoxic stresses.MSH2 rearrangements are involved in approximately 1% of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families, and in most of the rearrangements, exon 1 is deleted.Loss of human MSH2 (hMSH2) protein might be involved in the multistep pathogenesis of haematological malignancies associated with genetic instability.
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