Aconitase 1(ACO1) or IRP1 is one member of the aconitase family that contains a diverse group of iron-sulphur(Fe-S) isomerases and two types of iron regulatory protein. Aconitase exits in two forms: one is soluble and the other is mitochondrial. ACO1 is the soluble existing form, and the mitochondrial form is ACO2. Residues from all three N-terminal domains and the larger C-terminal domain contribute to the active site region. When the enzyme is activated, it gains an additional iron atom. ACO1 can assume two different functions in cells, depending on different conditions. During iron scarcity or oxidative stress, ACO1 binds to mRNA stem-loop structures called iron responsive elements to modulate the translation of iron metabolism genes. In iron-rich conditions, ACO1 binds an iron-sulfur cluster to function as a cytosolic aconitase.
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